Independent System Operators grew out of Orders Nos. 888/889 where the Commission suggested the concept of an Independent System Operator as one way for existing tight power pools to satisfy the requirement of providing non-discriminatory access to transmission. Subsequently, in Order No. 2000, the Commission encouraged the voluntary formation of Regional Transmission Organizations to administer the transmission grid on a regional basis throughout North America (including Canada). Order No. 2000 delineated twelve characteristics and functions that an entity must satisfy in order to become a Regional Transmission Organization.